Discoveries of 2013
A number of important scientific and astronomical events have characterized 2013. Among them would be the discovery of numerous extra solar planets similar to Earth and a number of galaxies, comets and asteroids that have intrigued the experts for the interesting aspects of a scientific level. Astronomers, therefore, have come a year basically full of discoveries. Of them, those relating to extra solar planets have certainly aroused enormous interest.
Retrace all astronomical events of 2013. A quick digression devoted to the wonders of the cosmos, which is framed by our Earth, the little blue planet that, so far at least, remains unparalleled.
A study conducted by astronomers at Caltech reports that the Milky Way contains at least one planet for every star. This leads to 100/400 000 000 000 the number of extra solar planets. The study, based on planets orbiting the star Kepler 32, suggests that planetary systems may be the norm around stars in our galaxy.
Also in January, astronomers reported the discovery of giant geyser of charged particles from the nucleus of our galaxy. These outflows, which extend up to 50 thousand light years, it is claimed, are powered by intense star formation.
Astronomers say that 6 per cent of dwarf stars, which is the most common stars in the known universe, can host Earth-like planets. In addition, some of these extrasolar planets are only 13 light years from Earth.
In February, NASA’s Curiosity rover uses its drill aboard to take the first sample of deep rock never recovered from the surface of another planet.
And finally, NASA reported the discovery of Kepler 37b, the smallest extrasolar planet the size of Earth.
Curiosity again. The rover finds that the environmental conditions on Mars were once suitable to host microbial life. The result leads to the tests on the first sample of Martian rock drilled, named John Klein, harvested at the Gale Crater. The rover also detects water, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and sulfur dioxide.
The research team at the helm of the European Planck probe launched his mission to map the cosmic radiation. The map suggests the universe is slightly older than previously thought and is constituted 4.9 per cent of ordinary matter, 26.8 percent dark matter and dark energy of 68.3 per cent.
NASA scientists report that a portion of dark matter can be detected from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station this. According to scientists, the first results confirm an unexplained excess of high-energy positrons.
Even NASA. The space agency says that complex organic chemicals may be present on Titan, a moon of Saturn, based on studies that simulate the atmosphere.
Finally, NASA announced the discovery of three new extrasolar planets (Kepler- 62e, Kepler- 62f and Kepler- 69) in their habitable zones. The new planets, considered prime candidates to accommodate water in the liquid state and, therefore, potentially even life, were identified using the probe Kepler. And thanks to the Cassini spacecraft, it was possible to photograph a huge storm on Saturn, more than 20 times the size of a terrestrial hurricane.
The Wide- field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) turns 28 families of asteroids in the asteroid belt, located between Mars and Jupiter. It is also evident the presence of a large number of previously hidden rocks and unclassified thanks to some images realized infrared.
NASA reports that a possible manned mission to Mars may involve a greater risk of radiation for a possible crew. The discovery is made based on the amount of energetic particles detected by the Mars Science Laboratory during the trip from Earth to Mars between 2011 and 2012.
Scientists report the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the upper atmosphere of Titan, the largest moon of the planet Saturn.
In addition, experts report that the allegations regarding the close similarity between the Earth and an extrasolar planet orbiting Alpha Centauri B, a nearby star to our solar system, may not be supported by astronomical evidence.
The Hubble Space Telescope photographed a new moon of Neptune, the 14th so far to be discovered.
NASA scientists publish the results of a new analysis of the climate of Mars, showing the lack of methane around the landing site for the Curiosity rover. In addition, scientists prove that the red planet has lost much of its atmosphere over time, based on the amount of the isotopic compositions of gases, in particular those relating to argon and carbon.
NASA reports that the Curiosity rover has used a system of autonomous navigation. It is Autonav, a system that ability to drive the rover autonomously.
Scientists working with the Curiosity rover report no detection of atmospheric methane. Consequently, the probability of microbial activity on Mars is extremely reduced. In addition, astronomers say that the rover has detected an abundant and easily accessible source of water in some soil samples taken at the Rocknest Aeolis Palus region, close to Gale Crater.
Astronomers confirm with certainty that he had discovered the thousandth exoplanet.
Astronomers, on the basis of the space mission Kepler, claim that there could be up to 40 billion planets the size of Earth, orbiting in the habitable zones around stars similar to the Sun and the red dwarf stars in the Milky Way. 11 billion of those planets can orbit around stars similar to the Sun
NASA scientists report that the planet Mars was home to a large freshwater lake, which could have been a hospitable environment for microbial life. This claim is based on evidence found by the Curiosity rover studying Aeolis Palus, near Mount Sharp in Gale Crater.
The U.S. space agency, finally, on the basis of studies carried out with the Hubble Space Telescope, announces that plumes of water vapor detected on Europa, a moon of Jupiter, were similar to those observed on Enceladus, a moon of Saturn.