Dense rains and VAST waters of diamonds on Saturn and Jupiter
American researchers affirms that in the atmosphere of the planets Saturn and Jupiter might form diamonds falling in the form of rain on their surface, according to a study presented during a Conference which took place in the city of Denver, informs maxisciences.com.
“The new data confirms that, at large depths, diamonds could float inside Saturn, some so large which might be called diamond bergs”, affirm the researchers. The authors of the study led by Mona Delitsky and Kevin Baines say that the graphite or ashes created by lightning on Saturn are falling towards the inside of the planet where, due to the high temperature and pressure are turned into diamonds. Precious stones descend than deeper into the planet’s atmosphere, so close to the nucleus, where they are processed into liquid. So far the researchers believed that the diamonds might exist in the bark of the cold planets such as Neptune or Uranus. “Diamonds will be forever on Uranus and Neptune and for a determined period of time on Jupiter and Saturn,” say Delitsky and Baines. Scientists believe that diamonds are formed on Earth naturally occurring at depths of 160 kilometers beneath the Earth’s crust. The carbon that will result a diamond must be heated to temperatures of over 1.000 degrees Celsius and subjected to pressures exceeding 2.000 tons per square inch for the precious stone to form. It is also necessary that the newly formed diamond to be brought to the surface relatively quickly, in order to maintain in this state, usually being taken by a wave of magma and went to the surface, where it cools down.
The diamond is one of the toughest materials which are found on Earth. Is a mineral that forms when carbon is subject to specific and extreme conditions – normally at temperatures in excess of 1.100 ° C and at pressures of at least 4.5 gigapascal (GPa).
American researchers have studied through laboratory experiments and computer programs, the manner in which carbon behaves in such conditions and have compared the information obtained with observations made recently to the planets Saturn and Jupiter. They have come to the conclusion that the two planets meet the conditions necessary for the formation of diamonds, from methane that is found in their atmosphere and from the storms that “sweeps” soil. These storms are strong enough to “break” the molecules of methane in the atmosphere of the planets, as suggested by data collected by the Cassini space probe.
According to researchers from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and at California Specialty Engineering, this phenomenon gives rise to simple carbon particles, falling into the atmosphere through a dense area. Then subjected to high pressures, it turns into graphite, a stable mineral form of carbon. Continuing its fall, in the deeper layers of the atmosphere, the graphite is subjected to new high levels of temperatures and pressures, which lead to the formation of diamonds in solid form.
The study’s authors sustain that following this process thousands of tons of diamonds can form per year. However, diamonds do not remain in this state on the surface of Saturn and Jupiter, forming a giant ocean of “liquid diamonds” because of existing ground-level temperatures.
This is not the first time that this theory is transmitted by. Previous studies have suggested that Uranus and Neptune could be “diamond producers”. But it is the first time that Jupiter and Saturn are concerned, which, compared to Uranus and Neptune, have lower levels of methane in the atmosphere. Thus, if in Saturn’s atmosphere, methane accounts for 0.5%, while that of Jupiter, 0,2%, onto Neptune and Uranus, this figure rises to 15%.